The Red Square is by the Kremlin and its edges include not only the red Kremlin wall, but also the medieval buildings. Therer is the red- brick Historical Museum with tapered towers and the GUM department store that imitates medieval church architecture.
Several well-known communists and high-ranking officials, heroes, have been buried in the Kremlin wall. Yuri Gagarin and John Reed, the naive and idealistic american reporter, amongst others. Reed wrote a reportage book Ten Days That Shocked the World on what happened during the Russian Revolution in 1917.
Lenin’s Mausoleum was built of red and black granite, partly an oriental temple and modernist cultural monument.On the roof of the mausoleum the leaders of the Communist Party followed the military parades. In Red Square the power of Soviet armed forces were presented.
Stalin built it for Lenin. Lenin, who became a communist worshiped saint and legend alongside the great worshiped leader and Stalin. The embalmed body of Lenin is still resting in his mausoleum.
An attempt was made to move Lenin away from the Mausoleum after the Soviet Union broke down, but it fell on the Communist Party’s opposition, which had a strong position in the new Russian state at least in the beginning.
Its free for public and usually you must wait long in queue to get in because of its popularity and strict security measures,
Cathedrals of St. Basil and Kazan
At the other end of the Red Square is the Church of St. Basil ,the symbol of whole Moscow and Russia and. It reflects the greatness of the Russian Church, the heavenly city of Moscow as the third Rome, after the Second Rome, Constantinople lost its power.
The center of the church is the octagonal church of the Holy Virgin, whose tent roof culminates in a gold-colored bulb. Smaller churches with turrets and decorative domes are located harmoniously around the central church.
The Church has been named Vasily the Blessed One, a holy fool( jurovdivj) favored by the people. The church was converted into a museum during the Soviet Union and was not demolished.
Stalin ordered the demolition of Kazan Cathedral in 1936 and there was a workplace canteen and a general toilet. The church was rebuilt in an old place at a fast pace in 1993 with faithful copies of the original building.
GUM Shopping Center and Historical Museum
The GUM was built in 1893 to replace an old marketplace destroyed by fire.
It is a modern european shopping center of its time in the 19th century with passages, while it looks like a long medieval church building.
After the October Revolution, it served as a propaganda center for parades in the Red Square and as a mausoleum for Stalin’s young wife, who committed suicide.
In 1953, it was reopened as a shopping center and was designed to demonstrate to the selected foreign visitors the abundance of material welfare in the Soviet Union.
The Historical Museum shines in red at the other end of the Red Square. It is also very Russian in style, with its medieval towers with decorative patterns.